Expanding White Racial Identity Theory: A Qualitative Investigation of Whites Engaged in Antiracist Action

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This article presents outcomes of a qualitative exploration of White racial identity. Ten participants whose characteristics were reflective of Helms's (1990) autonomy status defined their racial identities and related lifestyle choices. Findings are conceptualized within the framework of Helms's (1990, 1995) theory of White racial identity development. Suggestions are intended to enhance White racial identity theory and provide empirical support for characteristics of Whites who are engaged in antiracist activities.