Gameful learning as a way of being

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As a variation on game-based learning, we propose the concept of 'gameful learning' as a framework that encourages improvisation, playfulness, and social interaction, and which takes into account the unique contingencies of individual people and specific content. We describe gameful learning in terms of three elements: attitude, identity, and ignorance. Three cases of gameful learning are examined across diverse learning environments: a fourth grade science class studying matter, a secondary world history class studying the Middle Ages, and an educational technology graduate programme. Cross-case analysis reveals how gameful learning elements relate to attitudes of agency and social necessity, becoming a game designer, and embracing ignorance for learning.