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Defining and measuring teacher knowledge is a challenging endeavor. The instrumentation from which these measures are derived must be valid. This study provides a critical investigation of the validity of an instrument that was developed to determine the effect of a teacher education program on novice science and mathematics teachers’ Strategic Knowledge (SK). It was found that there are issues with respect to the validity of this instrument. These issues center on the reliability of scores, the effect of embedding specific content into the instrument, and the lack of convergent validity evidence from observations of practice. These findings and the development of the validity argument suggest some concrete recommendations for others who are engaged in similar measurement efforts.