Intermediate Participatory Stages as Zone of Proximal Development Correlate in Constructing Counting-On: A Plausible Conceptual Source for Children's Transitory "Regress" to Counting-All

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Quantitative and qualitative analyses of 37 first-graders' solutions to addition problems were conducted to re-examine inconsistencies in children's progress from counting-all to counting-on. The study advances a novel, theoretical coordination among 3 frameworks: constructivist scheme theory with a focus on the notion of prompt, Vygotsky's sociocultural approach, and Siegler's Overlapping Waves Model, and provides a corresponding, threefold stance on mathematical tasks.